Pregnancy Induced Ocular Changes and Associated Risk of Ocular Medications
Pregnancy is associated with various ocular changes which can be either physiological or pathological or modification in
pre existing conditions. These changes are mostly transient, however some can become permanent. Physiological ocular
changes include change in ocular adnexa, tear film composition, cornea, refraction and intraocular pressure. Pathological
ocular changes occur as a result of pregnancy induced hypertension, pseudotumour cerebri, vascular occlusive disorders
and amniotic fluid embolism. Some of the pre-existing ocular conditions worsen during pregnancy which include diabetic
retinopathy, Grave’s disease, toxoplasmosis, pituitary tumours, meningioma and uveal tumours. Others show improvement in
pregnancy such as uveitis, optic neuritis and multiple sclerosis. Yet others are associated with exacerbations during postpartum
period as optic neuritis. Knowledge of these changes is important for both ophthalmologists and gynaecologists for proper
management of these patients. Also the treatment modalities for various disorders differ between pregnant and non pregnant
females. The ophthalmic medications should be used cautiously during pregnancy and lactation to avoid harmful effects in the
mother and the fetus. The materials published in Pubmed, Google Scholar webpages and standard books have been used for
preparing this paper.
Keywords: ocular changes; ocular medications; pregnancy.
Copyright on any research article in the Nepal Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology is retained by the author(s).
The authors grant the Nepal Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology a license to publish the article and identify itself as the original publisher.
Articles in the Nepal Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology are Open Access articles published under the Creative Commons CC BY-NC License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/)
This license permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and it is not used for commercial purposes.